Correct Neco 2018 Agricultural science Essay and Obj Expo

Agric Theory

Note: You are to answer one question from each section

1 from section A (NUMBER 1 or 2)
1 fron section B (NUMBER 3 or 4)
1 from section C (NUMBER 5 or 6)
1 from section D (NUMBER 7 or 8)

i) It is always important to carry out daily checks on your tractor before you drive it to ensure everything is in working order

ii) Always practice the Safe Stop procedure.

iii) When getting in and out of the tractor always use access steps and hand supports, adjust seat position to operate controls

iv )Always keep floors, doors, pedals clear and keep your boots clean.

v) Tractors or machinery should never be operated if a danger from overhead electricity lines exist.
i. Soil type: Soil characteristics and strength determine its ability to withstand stress exerted by a building. Erect structures on firm, well-drained soils.

ii. Topography: If the land is too sloppy, there are high chances of landslide occurrence; and if it is too flat, there is likelihood of poor drainage that leads to flooding. A relatively flat free drained area is most suitable.

Subsistence Agriculture

(i) Farming practices in which crops are cultivated for local consumption.
(ii) Farms are small and food crops are cultivated such as rice and wheat.
(iii) Old tools and implements are used by the farmers.
(iv) Depends on monsoon and there is greater use of manpower.
(v)subsistence farming is aiming at self sufficiency.

Commercial agriculture
(i) Farming practice in which goods produced are mainly for the market to get cash.
(ii) Farms are larger and cash crops are cultivated. Such as cotton, sugar-cane, jute.
(iii) Better implements are used and there are proper irrigation facilities.
(iv) Less of manpower is used.
(v)Commercial farming is profit oriented, and profit is maximized through the implementation of economics of scale


i. Cocoa bean – chocolate

ii. rubber chemicals – tyre

iii. milk – consumption products eg cheese, ice cream

iv. tree timbers- furniture

Pick any 6
(i)problem of land Tenure
(ii)problems of basic Amenities
(iii)problems of finance and poor financing
(iv)poor transportation
(v)poor tools and farm machines
(vi)poor marketing system
(vii)poor communication
(viii)Lack of Good Agricultural Education

Green Resolution
(Pick two)

(i)To ensure adequate, reliable and safe food supplies for a rapidly
growing population
(ii)To become self reliant
in basic food requirements
(iii)To raise and stabilize the nutritional standards of Nigerians

River Basin development Authority
(Pick two)

(i)It aims at improving rural infrastructure which will reduce migration to urban areas
(ii)construction of goad roads to project sites for easy transportation
(iii)construction of fish ponds , this will make way for large production of fingerlies to farmers.

Pick any 4
(i)High maintenance cost of machine
(ii)it is costly to purchase
(iii)it can break down and hold – up farm work
(iv)it can destroy soil structure
(v)it can cause pollution of the environment
(vi)it lead to displacement of workers

Pick any 2

(i)pull taut chains, tapes or ropes
(ii)Make sure the chain is not faulty
(iii)Avoid error due to parallax when reading measurement
(iv)Avoid error of transposing figures on papers
nutrient cycle is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic
matter back into the production of matter. In Other Words they are nutrients are not lost to the environment but instead can be re-used.
i)Bush burning
ii)Over grazing
iii)Percolation and leaching
i)Good soil texture leads to high agricultural yield.
ii)It leads to maintenance of soil quality
i)High temperature causes drought
ii)It leads to death of animals in some instances
i)They destroy farm produce.
ii)They reduce the value of farm produce.
i)Soil erosion and sedimentation
ii)Application of fertilizer
iii)Application of pesticides
iv)Bush burning


Plant propagation is process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings and other plant parts. Plant propagation can also refer to the artificial or natural dispersal of plants.
: (5aii)
Grafting and budding are horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant. In grafting, the upper part (scion) of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant. In the budding process, a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another
6a. loading…

i. Black bug
ii. Mole cricket

i. Biological method
ii. Cultural method
iii. Physical method
iv. Chemical method

i. Forestry provides jobs for more than people across the world

ii. It Provides food , medicine , timbers etc for many domestic and industrial processes

iii. Forest helps in the stabilization of climate

iv. Planting of forests help in the purification of air and balancing the amount of CO2 and O2 in the environment

Pick Any 2
i. Oak
ii. Birch
iii. Flowering pear
iv. Flowering Crabapple
Causal Organism is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of cattle and swine. It also affects sheep, goats, deer, and other cloven-hooved ruminants. In other words The disease is caused by a virus
i)Weight loss.
ii)Low conception rates.
i)Through contact with an infected person’s saliva, stool, or respiratory secretions.
i)monitor and report illness;
ii)appropriate disposal of manure and dead carcasses.
i)Good biosecurity measures should be practiced on uninfected farms to prevent entry of the virus.
i)It regulate the acidity of the blood.
ii)It control the concentrations of water and salt in the body fluids
iii)It excrete the waste product urea
i)Air is sucked in through the mouth or nose.
ii)Gas Exchange or oxygen deprived, dark blue blood is then delivered to the blood vessels of the lungs.
iii)muscle contraction or it requires muscular effort.
i)Evaluating the effects of air stress during storage on aerobic stability
ii)Analysing the effects of exposure to air at feed-out of silage on methane
iii)Evaluating the effects of 6 silage additives on storage losses, silage quality.
Section E

(Number 9)

(i)Nigerian Capital Market Serves As
Link Between farmers(producer) And consumer
(ii)it encourages the processing of farm produce, into forms that the consumer desire.
(iii)The exportation of agricultural products abroad provides foreign exchange to the government and country
(iv)The sale of agricultural products can provide money or income to the farmers

Given that
Percentage Change in quantity = 15 -12 = 3
3/12 x 100= 25%
Change in price = 1700-1400 =300
300/1700 x 100= 17. 65%
Elasticity = 25/17. 65
Elasticity = 1. 42

(i)Farm settlement scheme
(ii)Operation feed the Nation
(iii)Green resolution
(iv)Agricultural development project

(Pick two)
(i)it includes farm and home visit
(ii)it also includes office calls
(iii)Telephone calls
(iv)The use of letters and correspondence

(i)Balance sheet:-The balance sheet show the capital or financial position of the FCC c at the end of the accounting period, usually a year. In balance sheet, list of assets is on the right hand side and the list of liability or debt is on the left hand side

(ii)Farm income statement:it comprises all the farm receipts(sales) and expenses carried out on the farm out on the farm over a specified period of time. Farm income statement gives an accurate idea of the profitability of the farm

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